American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier


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Sir Thomas Longmore

A Treatise on Gunshot Wounds, by Thomas Longmore,  (1863) U. S. Army Med. Dept.

Sir Thomas Longmore was born at Southwark, London, on October roth, 1816, and on the date of his death, which took place suddenly at Swanageon October ist. completed, less by a few days, 79 years of age. He was the eldest son of the late Mr. Thomas Longmore, Surgeon, R. N., and was educated at Merchant Taylor's School, and at Guy's Hospital. In due course he became dresser to Mr. Bransby Cooper, and assisted that Surgeon in private practice and in writing the life of Sir Astley Cooper. He also arranged and catalogued the Musuem of that great Surgeon, which afterwards became the property of the Royal College of Surgeons, of England. ; Sir. Thomas, became M. R. C. S., England, in the year 1841, and Fellow in 1856. In the year 1843, 'le entered the medical department of the army as an Assistant-Surgeon ; became Surgeon in 1854, Deputy-Inspector-General in 1858. and Surgeon-General in 1872. His first appointment was to the igth Regiment to which he was gazetted on the 3rd February. 1843, and served with it in the Ionian Islands, the West Indies and Canada, returning to England in 1851. He served throughout the Crimean Campaign with the igth, in 1854'5s in the Light Division, from its first taking the field until ihe termination of the siege of Sebastopol without being absent from duty a single day. He was present at the affair of Bulgunak, battles of Alma, and Inkerman, capture of Balaclava, sortie of 20th October, assaults of the Redan on the i8th June, and 8th September, and received the medal with three classes, Turkish medal, and was appointed a Knight of the Legion of Honor. He served in Bengal with the 191)1 Regiment, 1857, to '59 during the mutiny, and was then promoled Deputy Inspecter General of Hospitals. After this he returned to England and was appointed Principal Medical Officer, Colchester. In the year 1860 he was appointed by Lord Herbert, who was then War Minister, to the new Army Medical School, Netley, as Professor of Military Surgery, and in the presence of that Minister, the General Commanding the District, and other Officers of distinction, he delivered his opening address. This appointment he held till 1891, when he resigned.

In 1864 he represented the British Government in the Geneva International Congress, and was a member of the Committee that settled the terms of the International treaty which was formally adopted on the 22nd August, and which has been since known as the Convention of Geneva. In 1867 by order of the Secretary of State for War he took part in the International Conferences of the Societies for Aid to wounded Soldiers in time of war and was nominated a Companion of the Military Division of the Most Honorable Order of

* For most of the information in this sketch the writer is indebted to the Лкп isn Medical Journal.

the Bath, and in the following year he was gazetted Honorary Surgeon to Her Majesty the Queen. In 1866 the Société Impériale de Chirurgie de Paris elected him correspondent Etranger. He again represented the British Government in the year 1869 at a conference in Berlin on Aid to Sick and Wounded in War. In l872-'73, and again in 1896, he represented his Government at Vienna and Brussels for the settlement of International agreement? relating to sick and wounded in war, and took, in a mixed committee, composed of military and medical officers an active part in establishing the bearer companies and most of the existing field hospital arrangements of the British Army. On five other occasions he represented his Government at Foreign Congresses, and was elected an associe étranger of the French Academy of medical and other scientific societies. By decree of the president of the French Republic, Sir. Thomas, was, in 1879, promoted to the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honor, the insignia of which by Royal License he was permitted to wear.

In 1867 he was awarded the C. B. and in 1886, was Knighted by the Queen at Osborne. In the year after he was Knighted, the military medical services presented the Army Medical Department with a portrait of Surgeon General Longmore by George Reid, R. S. A., of Edinburgh, which adorns the ante-room of the mess-room at Netley.

He married in 1862, Mary Rosalie Helen, daughter of the late Captain W. S. Moorsom of the 52nd Regiment.

Sir Thomas Longmore has added much to our store of medical literature. The mere titles of his works and papers would occupy pages of this journal. His " Synopsis of Cases of Heat Apoplexy ;" his " Essay on Gunshot "Wounds," (Holmes' System of Surgery) reprinted in the United States, and formed the text book of the Surgeons of both Armies in the American Civil War. His " Observations on the Preliminary Care Necessary for Accidental Injuries," read at the annual Assembly of St. John of Jerusalem, 1874, was the starting point of the ambulance classes of St. John. He was also the author of " Antiseptic Surgery in Baltic fields ;" Life of Ursiman :" " Gunshot Injuries ;" " New Military Weapons and Explosives," and an immense number of lectures, reports and papers on every conceivable subject relating to military surgery. His " Optical Manual" has passed through several editions.

The above short sketch will convey to the readers of this journal the prominent part which Sir Thomas Longmore took in the profession, to whom military surgery in particular owes a debt of deep gratitude.

For many years after retirement, which took place in 1876, Sir Thomas' life was in constant peril from cardiac failure, which became more frequent and alarming as time went on, the suffering always attending them growing more intense. On Monday, September 3oth, whilst in the enjoyment of the fine air of Swanage, the place above all others most conginal to him, he had an attack of his usual breast pang at 6-30 am, and although medical aid was immediately summoned, he became cyanotic and expired a few minutes after 7 A. M.

His loss will be acutely felt by the services in this country, owing to the great interest he always took in, and his constant thorough touch with the progress of, military surgery, In the last twenty five-years he has been the tried and trusted friend not only of all Netley men, but of the whole of his Department. Truly, a great military surgeon has passed away.




(The personal edited research notes of Michael Echols, the source of which may or may not be completely documented)

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Civil War Medical Collections 


Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:


Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

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Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016