American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier


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Woodward, Joseph Janvier, M.D.


Outlines of the Chief Camp Diseases of the United States Army (As observed during the present war), by Joseph Janvier Woodward, M.D., 1863, marked for the U. S. Army Hospital Department

Outlines of the Chief Camp Diseases of the United States Army (As observed during the present war), by Joseph Janvier Woodward, M.D., 1863, marked for the U. S. Army Hospital Department

View the Medical Dept. books by Dr. Woodward in this collection

Name: Joseph Janvier Woodward
Cause of death: disease of the brain
Death date: Aug 17, 1884
Place of death: Philadelphia, PA
Birth date: 1833
Place of birth: Philadelphia, PA
Type of practice: Allopath
Practice specialities:GS General Surgery
Medical school(s): University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 1853, (G)
Other education: Philadelphia Central High School
Journal of the American Medical Association Citation: 3:241,249,252,279

WOODWARD, Joseph Janvier Woodward, surgeon, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30 October, 1833; died near that city, 17 August, 1884. He was graduated at the Philadelphia central high-school in 1850, and at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1853. He practiced his profession in Philadelphia, and also gave private instruction in the use of the microscope and in pathological histology, and with Dr. Charles Bishop he conducted a ' quiz" class in connection with the course of instruction in the University of Pennsylvania. Subsequently he became demonstrator in operative surgery in that place and clinical surgical assistant, and then took charge of the surgical clinic of the university.

At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the United States army as assistant surgeon, serving with the 2d United States artillery in the Army of the Potomac, and then became chief medical officer of the 5th division in the Department of Northeast Virginia, being present at the first battle of Bull Run. Later he became medical officer of three light batteries in General Philip Kearny's division in the Army of the Potomac. In May, 1862, he was assigned to duty in the surgeon-general's office in Washington, and charged with the duty of collecting materials for a medical and surgical history of the war and for a military medical museum. At the close of the war he received the brevets of captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel, and on 28 July, 1866, he was commissioned captain and assistant surgeon. He was made surgeon with the rank of major on 26 June, 1876.

Dr. Woodward was associated in the management of President Garfield's case after he was shot, and the confinement, anxiety, and labor to which he was subjected during the president's long illness proved too great for him and hastened the "sickness that terminated his life.  

Surgeon J.J. Woodward

Place Association Role Description Begin Date End Date
Patent Office Hospital- HOSPITAL United States Army doctor Recorded the case of Private Clarence R. Smith.   November 1, 1860 (War Boundary) December 31, 1865 (War Boundary)
Patent Office Hospital- HOSPITAL United States Army doctor Reported on Private W.H. Miller's case   September 23, 1862 (Unknown) Unknown or not currently known

He was president of the American medical association. He published about 100 single papers, and in book-form "Outlines of the Chief Camp Diseases of the United States Armies" (Philadelphia, 1863) and contributed to "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion" (2 vols., Washington, 1870-'9).

John Wilkes Booth died at about sunrise on Wednesday, April 26, 1865, on the porch of Richard Garrett's house near Port Royal, Virginia.

Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes and Dr. Joseph Janvier Woodward performed John Wilkes Booth's autopsy aboard the Montauk.

Dr. Woodward wrote the following detailed account of the autopsy of John Wilkes Booth: Case JWB: Was killed April 26, 1865, by a conoidal pistol ball, fired at the distance of a few yards, from a cavalry revolver. The missile perforated the base of the right lamina of the 4th lumbar vertebra, fracturing it longitudinally and separating it by a fissure from the spinous process, at the same time fracturing the 5th vertebra through its pedicle, and involving that transverse process. The projectile then transversed the spinal canal almost horizontally but with a slight inclination downward and backward, perforating the cord which was found much torn and discolored with blood (see Specimen 4087 Sect. I AMM). The ball then shattered the bases of the left 4th and 5th laminae, driving bony fragments among the muscles, and made its exit at the left side of the neck, nearly opposite the point of entrance. It avoided the 2nd and 3rd cervical nerves. These facts were determined at autopsy which was made on April 28. Immediately after the reception of the injury, there was very general paralysis. The phrenic nerves performed their function, but the respiration was diaphragmatic, of course, labored and slow. Deglutition was impracticable, and one or two attempts at articulation were unintelligible. Death, from asphyxia, took place about two hours after the reception of the injury.


Surgical Pathology in the Era of the Civil War: The Remarkable Life and Accomplishments of Joseph Janvier Woodward, MD

Amy V. Rapkiewicz, MD; Alan Hawk, BA; Adrienne Noe, PhD; David M. Berman, MD, PhD

James Janvier Woodward (1833–1884) was born in Philadelphia, Pa, where he remained for medical school at the University of Pennsylvania (1853).

He was the published author of several papers related to microscopic studies and a founding member of the Pathological Society of Philadelphia in 1857. Following the outbreak of the Civil War, Woodward volunteered for the US Army. Initially, he served as an assistant surgeon and brevet major, participating in several battles, including the first Battle at Bull Run. In June 1862, Woodward was assigned to the Office of the Surgeon General to prepare the medical section of the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (MSHWR). His duties included acquiring gross pathologic specimens to document medical conditions suffered by American soldiers along with the case history. Two years later, he was given control of the Medical and Microscopical Sections of the Army Medical Museum (currently the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) and the Office of the Surgeon General Records and Pension Division, where he remained for the rest of his career. In addition to collecting specimens for the museum's archive, he coauthored the definitive medical history of the Civil War in the 6-volume 1870 publication of the MSHWR. Woodward's technique using aniline dyes for staining thin sections of tissue, along with his pioneering work in photomicroscopy, helped prepare the groundwork for modern surgical pathology.

(The personal edited research notes of Michael Echols, the source of which may or may not be completely documented)


Medical Antiques Index

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques Index

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Civil War Medical Collections 


Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:


Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

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Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016