American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier

 

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American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols & Dr. Doug Arbittier

2011 - "The sesqui-centennial of the Civil War" -  2015

The 150th Year Celebration

 

 Home page  |   Feedback & Contact Dr. Echols  |  SEARCH this site   |  Article Indexes   |   Medical Faculty & Authors

 Civil War Medical Books  |  Medicine Containers   |   1800's & Civil War Surgery Set Displays

Medical College Index - Lecture Cards  |  Civil War Medical Book Author-Title Index

Wanted to Purchase: Items like those on this website, including Civil War surgeon uniforms, medical books, CDV's, surgeon images, diaries, and related medical items ... Contact

Dr. Echols' partial list of Google books for Civil War Surgeon Research

 

Archibald C. Fowler, M.D. 

U.S. Navy Assistant Surgeon Application

Second of Two Applications by Fowler

 

By Norman L. Herman, M.D., PhD.

The following is a dictated translation of the hand-written application to the U. S. Navy Examination Board during the Civil War by a civilian physician/surgeon for a position as a medical officer in the Federal Navy or for promotion to Assistant Surgeon by an Acting Assistant Surgeon.  The actual applications are in the possession of the author and presented to enlighten the general public and other researchers as to the education process before and during the Civil War, the personal history of the applicants, as well as to show their personal level of medical knowledge in answering the questions asked by the Navy Board of Examiners.  (Some applicants failed to pass and did not serve or served in the Union Army.)

This written presentation was first of a part of a two-part exam consisting of a written exam and an oral exam.   Many of these applications are rich with highly detailed medical content offering an interesting perspective on the medical knowledge and practices of the period.  A broad sampling of these exams is presented to give you a 'picture' of the type of applicant being examined and admitted to or rejected by the Federal Navy in 1863.   Much more detail on the individuals and their personal and naval history will be presented in a forth-coming book by Dr. Herman.

(The actual written exam photos are available, but not presented on these pages due to the size of the files.  An example of a hand-written exam is on the 'List of all Applicants' page)

If you have additional information or images for any of these doctors, please contact us.

A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

 


Applicant: Archibald C. Fowler, M.D.

 

Boston, June 16th, 1863.

 

Sir,

               

I was born in Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co, Indianna [sic], on the 8th of February 1838:  During the following years, my father having died, my mother removed to Pawling Duchess Co N. Y. where I resided until the fall of 1858, when we moved to West Medford, Middlesex Co Mass. where I now live.  I prepared for College at Amenia Duchess Co N. Y.: entered Union College in Schenectady N. Y. in 1856, and was graduated in July 1860.

    

I entered the Medical School of Harvard University in November 1860, and continued my medical studies under the professors of that school up to March 1st 1863, since which time I have been studying with Dr D. W. Cheever

 

Very Respectfully

Your Obt Servt

A. C. Fowler

 

Surgeon Ruschenberger

Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.

 

[Board note in pencil]: This is among the very best of the candidates offered so far.  In the absence of Surgeons Fox and Potter, I have ventured to associate Asst Surg Willard in the examination

 


Questions by the Board:

           

Dr. Archibald C. Fowler is requested to write answers to the following questions.

             1.  What is the origin, course and distribution of the left carotid artery?

             2.  What are the diagnostic symptoms of dysentery?

             3.  What are the officinal preparations of opium?

             4.  What are the physical properties of chlorine?

             5.  What changes are produced in atmospheric air by respiration?

             6.  Define the term “latent heat”, “temperature”, and specific gravity?

 


Answers by Fowler:

 

1.  It a arises from the arch of the aorta, and runs upwards, and forwards to the sterno=clavicular articulation; from which point its course is represented, very nearly, by a line drawn from this articulation to a point midway between the angle of the jaw, and the mastoid process.  In the sheath is included the artery, the Pneumogastric nerve, + the internal jugular vein.  The vein lies to the outside, and the nerve between the artery and vein.  At the level of the clavicle the artery is crossed by the vein where it joins the brachio=cephalic.  Outside, in front of the sheath, and connect with it, is the decendens noni nerve, which joins a branch of the cervical plexus at about the middle of the neck.  The artery is covered, in the lower two thirds of its course by the sterno=mastoid, sterno=hyoid, and sterno=thyroid muscles, and is crossed, about two inches above the clavicle by the omo=hyoid.  On a level with the thyroid cartilage it divides into the external and internal carotids.

 

2.  Small mucus, or bloody stools accompanied with pain, straining at stool, and tenesmus.

 

3.     Pulvis Opii.  Pilulae Opii.

        Pulvis Ipecacuanha et Opii.

        Tinctura Opii.  Tincture Opii Camporata.

        Actum Opii. Vinum  Opii.

        Morphia Sulphae.

 

 4.  It is an irrespirable gas, of a greenish colour,  + a peculiar suffocating odour.

 

 5.  It loses oxygen, and gains carbonic acid and watery vapour.

 

 6. “Latent heat” is the heat contained in a body, which is not sensible to a thermometer.  “Temperature” is the degree of heat which is indicated by thermometer.  Specific gravity of a body is its weight divided by the weight of an equal bulk of water at 60F.

 

A. C. Fowler                                                                                             

Navy Yard     Boston

June 16th, 1863.


A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

Medical Antiques Index

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques Index
 

Contact Dr. Arbittier or Dr. Echols

 

 

Civil War Medical Collections 

 

Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:

INDEX

Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Please request permission before commercial use or publication of any content or photos on this site and credit any use with:  "American Civil War Surgical Antiques"   All content and all original photography on this Web Site is copyrighted 1995 - 2015 and may not be used on any other web site or in commercial print without the expressed e-mail permission from Dr. Arbittier:  Contact   All rights reserved. 

 

Students doing reports or projects are welcome to use the content of this site without permission, but credits would be appreciated.

 

Please note: information on this site may not be normally referenced as this is an active and long-term educational research project.  Personal notes may not be properly cited for publication.  Various articles are digitally reproduced under the 'fair-use act' of the copyright laws and are intended for educational purposes only.  Many citations are from Google digital 'books' and can be traced backwards via a search of a unique string in the citation.

 

 Arbittier Museum of Medical History Tour:   1 | 2 | 3

 

Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016