American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier

 

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American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols & Dr. Doug Arbittier

2011 - "The sesqui-centennial of the Civil War" -  2015

The 150th Year Celebration

 

 Home page  |   Feedback & Contact Dr. Echols  |  SEARCH this site   |  Article Indexes   |   Medical Faculty & Authors

 Civil War Medical Books  |  Medicine Containers   |   1800's & Civil War Surgery Set Displays

Medical College Index - Lecture Cards  |  Civil War Medical Book Author-Title Index

Wanted to Purchase: Items like those on this website, including Civil War surgeon uniforms, medical books, CDV's, surgeon images, diaries, and related medical items ... Contact

Dr. Echols' partial list of Google books for Civil War Surgeon Research

 

J. W. Riglander, M.D. 

U.S. Navy Assistant Surgeon Application

 

By Norman L. Herman, M.D., Ph.D.

The following is a dictated translation of the hand-written application to the U. S. Navy Examination Board during the Civil War by a civilian physician/surgeon for a position as a medical officer in the Federal Navy or for promotion to Assistant Surgeon by an Acting Assistant Surgeon.  The actual applications are in the possession of the author and presented to enlighten the general public and other researchers as to the education process before and during the Civil War, the personal history of the applicants, as well as to show their personal level of medical knowledge in answering the questions asked by the Navy Board of Examiners.  (Some applicants failed to pass and did not serve or served in the Union Army.)

This written presentation was first of a part of a two-part exam consisting of a written exam and an oral exam.   Many of these applications are rich with highly detailed medical content offering an interesting perspective on the medical knowledge and practices of the period.  A broad sampling of these exams is presented to give you a 'picture' of the type of applicant being examined and admitted to or rejected by the Federal Navy in 1863.   Much more detail on the individuals and their personal and naval history will be presented in a forth-coming book by Dr. Herman.

(The actual written exam photos are available, but not presented on these pages due to the size of the files.  An example of a hand-written exam is on the 'List of all Applicants' page)

If you have additional information or images for any of these doctors, please contact us.

A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

 


Applicant:  J. W. Riglander, M.D. 

 

To The Board of Examiners.

 

Gentlemen,

 

I was born in the City of New York in the County of New York.   The State of New York on the second day of August 1840.

                                    

I have pursued the studies at School of Reding [sic, correction mark in pencil] writing speling [sic, correction marks in pencil] Arithmetic Geography and the other things connected with the Comon [sic, correction marks in pencil] School education.  My clasical [sic, correction marks in pencil] as well as Scientific education I can say very little about for I have (not) [parentheses added in pencil] received but very little of either; I have not studied any branch of Natural history all the modern languages that I am acquainted with home are English + German.

                                  

I have studied in the first place with H. A. Ackley Prof(f) [parentheses added in pencil] of Surgeory [sic] at the Cleveland Medical College after that I commenced and finished with Dr. R. S. Strong at Cleveland Ohio I am a graduate of the Medical College in Cleveland Ohio

                                 

The opportunities it I have had for the Practise [sic, correction marks in pencil] of Pharmacy are that I have for two years been conected [sic, correction marks in pencil] with a Prescription Store.

                                 

I have for nearly two years been in the U.S. Marine Hospital daily with my Preceptor who was Surgeon there, wer [sic, correction marks in pencil] I could see the Physical properties of Medicine I also say that I had a good chance of observin [sic, correction marks in pencil] the Practise [sic, correction marks in pencil] of Medicine as well a Surgeory [sic] there.

 

Dr. J. W. Riglander                

My address in Philadelphia is 920 Mt Vernon Str. 

My address is   No 70 Seventh  Str  when in New Yor [sic]                                            

                                                                                                       


Questions by the Board:

 

Questions to be answered in writing by  Dr. J. W.  Riglander

1.  What are anasthætics [sic], + how employed in Surgery?

2.  What is hemorrhage, causes, + treatment etc?  (succinctly.)

3.  What are the signs of pregnancy?

4.  Describe the action of the stomach in the process of digestion—

5.  What is the Sweet Spirit of Nitre?  describe the mode of preparing it + give the rationale of the process –

6.  Describe the preparation of Sulphuric Acid and give the theory of the process.

7.  Give the coverings of an indirect inguinal Hernia.

8.  Give the physical signs of the Phthisis.

9.  What are the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Scarlatina?

 


Answers by Riglander:

 

1  Anasthætics [sic] are preperations [sic, correction marks in pencil] used in Surgery to make the patient insensible to pain during an operation or otherwise.  The way they are employed is on a sponge towel in a film [?] or in some such a maner [sic, correction marks in pencil], and held over the patients mouth and nose so as they can be inhaled and bring the person under the efects [sic, correction mark in pencil].

                                                    

2.  Hemorrhage is a flow of Blood which may be caused by the rupture of the vesel [sic, correction mark in pencil] in various ways also is the result of a wound which may be produced in varius [sic correction mark in pencil] ways.  There are diferent [sic, correction mark in pencil] ways of treating it such as Steptects [sic, correction marks in pencil] compreses [sic correction mark in pests] Bandages Ligatures cold applications

                                                  

 3The Signs of Pregnancy are stopage [sic, correction mark in pencil] of menes sickness of stomach, mausia [sic, correction mark in pencil] loss of apetite [sic, correction mark in pencil], uneasiness of patient enlargement of abdomen depression of naval [sic, correction mark in pencil] enlargement of mamary [sic, correction mark in pencil] glands brownish apearance [sic, correction mark in pencil] of the nipples also the peculier bloting [sic, correction mark in pencil] sound over abdomen near the center [sic, correction mark in pencil] also movements of the child may sometimes be felt.

                                               

4th.  The action of the Stomach during digestion is a peristaltic motion Produced by the muscular fibers [sic, correction mark in pencil] during this time it secreets [sic, correction mark in pencil] more gastric juise [sic, correction mark in pencil] on account of the food beeing [sic] in the stomach the Gastric juise [sic, correction mark in pencil] softens the pulp and by the mucular [sic, correction mark in pencil] action of the stomac [sic, correction mark in pencil] it is expelled in to the duodenum.

                                            

5th.  Sweets Spirit [sic, correction marks in pencil] of Nitre is a clear Solution in colour like water but lighter is a diuretic and also a diaphoretic.  it is made by the distillation of Nitric Acid and Spts [sic, correction mark in pencil] in the following manner the Spts and acid are placed in the retort [sic, should be “retoit”] the Spts Nitre is distilled over while some of the acid is kept in the retoit.

 

6.  Sulphuric Acid is a clear liquid in colour it is like water when it is pure and not unchanged but is much heavier, it is very easily chainged [sic, correction mark in pencil] in colour by it [sic, correction mark in pencil] beeing [sic] exposed to light and also by a foreigne [sic, correction mark in pencil] body comeing [sic, correction mark in pencil] in contact with it and beeing [sic, correction mark in pencil] there for some time, it is prepared of Sulphur + Oxygen its Symbol it is S.O.3   I am at present at a loss to tell how the preperation [sic, correction mark in pencil] is made and the process that is to be gone threw [sic, correction mark in pencil] with in making it.

                                           

7.  The coverings of an indirect inguinal Hernia are integiment [sic, correction mark in pencil] superficial fascia intercolumner [sic, correction mark in pencil] fascia conjoined tendon of internal oblique + transversalis muscle transversalis fascia an [sic] hernial [sic, correction mark in pencil] sac.

                                          

8. The Physical signs of the Phthisis Are to my knowledge short breath on walking especialy [sic, correction mark in pencil] on walking brisl [sic, correction mark in pencil] and in givng [sic, correction mark in pencil] up stairs and after taking exersise [sic, correction mark in pencil] raising up of mucopurulent mater [sic, correction mark in pencil] in the morning after coughing night sweats debility softening and wasting of muscles iregularity [sic, correction mark in pencil] of the bowels in some cases loss of apetite [sic, correction mark in pencil] at times at other times the apetite [sic, correction mark in pencil] may be very good dullness on percussion over affected part pain in chest and back while coughing also pain in both places at times when the person is trying to walk fast or exersise [sic, correction mark in pencil] also on bending over pain may frequently be felt there is also a good deel [sic, correction mark in pencil] of spitting of mucus durring [sic, correction mark in pencil] the day and night which keeps the patient uneasy there is also at times hemorrhage from lungs which is very debilitating and the patients frequently expired during one of these attacts [sic, correction mark in pencil] of bleeding there is at times restlessness at night which is the frequentn [sic, correction mark in pencil] result for the want of breath.

                                   

9th  The Symptoms of Scarlatina are hot dry skin flushed face discharge from from [sic] Eyes and nose inflamation [sic] of mucus coat of nose mouths & throat sore throat high colour of urine quick pulse

        

Diagnosis are diffused [sic, correction mark in pencil] Scarlet rash mostly over trunk and uper [sic] extremities high fever the sore throat also the discharge from nose and eyes enlargement of the glands in the throat which are usualy [sic] the result of the inflamation [sic] in the throat there may be some cough and pain in the abdomen sometimes the tongue is also coated

                               

Treatment consists in diureticts [sic, correction mark in pencil] diaphoreticts [sic, correction mark in pencil] sedatives good and wholesome air blisters and warm applications to the neck are offadvantage [sic, correction mark in pencil] at times and in low stages stimulants will be found necessary to keep the patient up.  care must be taken after the patient gets out for after Scarlatine [sic] a person is suscceptible [sic, correction mark in pencil] to varius [sic, correction mark in pencil] other diseases.

 

Dr. J. W. Riglander

Philadelphia                     

Sept 25th 1863.


A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

Medical Antiques Index

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques Index
 

Contact Dr. Arbittier or Dr. Echols

 

 

Civil War Medical Collections 

 

Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:

INDEX

Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Please request permission before commercial use or publication of any content or photos on this site and credit any use with:  "American Civil War Surgical Antiques"   All content and all original photography on this Web Site is copyrighted 1995 - 2015 and may not be used on any other web site or in commercial print without the expressed e-mail permission from Dr. Arbittier:  Contact   All rights reserved. 

 

Students doing reports or projects are welcome to use the content of this site without permission, but credits would be appreciated.

 

Please note: information on this site may not be normally referenced as this is an active and long-term educational research project.  Personal notes may not be properly cited for publication.  Various articles are digitally reproduced under the 'fair-use act' of the copyright laws and are intended for educational purposes only.  Many citations are from Google digital 'books' and can be traced backwards via a search of a unique string in the citation.

 

 Arbittier Museum of Medical History Tour:   1 | 2 | 3

 

Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016