American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier

 

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American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols & Dr. Doug Arbittier

2011 - "The sesqui-centennial of the Civil War" -  2015

The 150th Year Celebration

 

 Home page  |   Feedback & Contact Dr. Echols  |  SEARCH this site   |  Article Indexes   |   Medical Faculty & Authors

 Civil War Medical Books  |  Medicine Containers   |   1800's & Civil War Surgery Set Displays

Medical College Index - Lecture Cards  |  Civil War Medical Book Author-Title Index

Wanted to Purchase: Items like those on this website, including Civil War surgeon uniforms, medical books, CDV's, surgeon images, diaries, and related medical items ... Contact

Dr. Echols' partial list of Google books for Civil War Surgeon Research

 

Erastus Romig Scholl, M.D.

U.S. Navy Assistant Surgeon Application

 

By Norman L. Herman, M.D., Ph.D.

The following is a dictated translation of the hand-written application to the U. S. Navy Examination Board during the Civil War by a civilian physician/surgeon for a position as a medical officer in the Federal Navy or for promotion to Assistant Surgeon by an Acting Assistant Surgeon.  The actual applications are in the possession of the author and presented to enlighten the general public and other researchers as to the education process before and during the Civil War, the personal history of the applicants, as well as to show their personal level of medical knowledge in answering the questions asked by the Navy Board of Examiners.  (Some applicants failed to pass and did not serve or served in the Union Army.)

This written presentation was first of a part of a two-part exam consisting of a written exam and an oral exam.   Many of these applications are rich with highly detailed medical content offering an interesting perspective on the medical knowledge and practices of the period.  A broad sampling of these exams is presented to give you a 'picture' of the type of applicant being examined and admitted to or rejected by the Federal Navy in 1863.   Much more detail on the individuals and their personal and naval history will be presented in a forth-coming book by Dr. Herman.

(The actual written exam photos are available, but not presented on these pages due to the size of the files.  An example of a hand-written exam is on the 'List of all Applicants' page)

If you have additional information or images for any of these doctors, please contact us.

A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

 


Applicant:  Erastus Romig Scholl, M.D.

 

Philadelphia

September 23d 1863

 

Gentlemen,

                                                                            

I was born in Fleetwood Berks County Pennsylvania on the 21st day of July 1834.  I am twenty nine years two months in two days old to day, I attended common school untill [sic, correction marks in pencil] I was fourteen years old I was then sent to school with the Rev John Vandvere of Easton where I remained for a little better than three years.  I persued [sic, correction marks in pencil] the ordinary course, except the last year when I took up Latin and German, but I never studied Latin to any extent, always preferring Physiology Chemistry etc   I commenced the study of Medicine when I was eighteen years old I read medicine with Dr. C Keely at Boyertown Pennsylvania   I attended my first course of lectures in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Medical College in my twentieth yeare [sic, correction marks in pencil] and graduated after attending two courses.  I also attended the Hospitals both sessions and the Blackley Hospital for some time after I graduated, since then I have practiced medicine I have also for the last four years had charge of the County Alms House at Reading Pennsylvania I have also had considerable practice in Surgery.  I have successfully operated for stone in the bladder – in one case.

 

My address in Philadelphia is

Merchants Hotel 4th St between Market

and Arch St

When I am at home my address is

Reading, Pennsylvania

                                                                           

Erastus R Scholl

September 23d 1863

 


Questions by the Board:

 

Questions to be answered in writing, by, E. K. [sic] Scholl

1.  Give some account of Cinchona and its preparations – their properties and uses

2.  Describe the preparation of Sulphuric Ether + give the rationale the process.

3.  Give a classification detail of the proximate elements of food –

4.  Give the branches of the internal Maxillary artery.

5.  What are the rationale + physical signs of Pneumonia?

6.  Describe the physiology of Respiration.

7.  What are the means of arresting hemorrhage?

8.  What is hydrocele, and is its diagnosis [sic]?

9.  How do Surgeons divided tumours?

 


Answers by Scholl:

 

1   Cinchona is imported from South America, generally from Perus [sic, correction marks in pencil], there are several varieties as the Red and yellow bar, the properties of Cinchona were discovered by the indians the Red variety is the most valuable, and also produces the best preparations.  The preparations of Cinchona are first the, Tincture of the bark.  Sulphate of Quinia and Cinchomira [sic] is the preparation mostly employed in medicine and is a valuable remedy in fevers.  The properties of Sulphate of Quinia and all the preparations are febrifuge – the action of Quinia are stimulant and excitant.  The uses of Quinine are in fevers generally of all types produced by miasm, or miasmatis [sic] causes, it is also given as a tonic in very many disease [sic, correction marks in pencil], and in combination with Iron forms one of our most valuable tonics known as the Citrate of Iron and Quinia as a tonic it is generally given in one grain doses every three or four hours.  by some it has been employ in very large doses (the Sulphate of Quinine) in Congestive Fever, and I belive [sic, correction marks in pencil] with good results in malarious districts   it is often employed in small doses as a preventative [correction marks in pencil] to fever this is a common practice along our southern coast.

Sulph Ether.

 

2   Sulphuric Ether, is an etherial [sic] liquid colorless, it is very inflamable [sic, correction marks in pencil], evaporates very rapidly producing cold  it is often used locally in painful local affections of the skin, and also internally by inhalation as an anethetic [sic] agent.  in spasmodic affections and during the performance of surgical operations.  it is prepared by the action of Sulphuric Acid on Alcohol the Sulphuric Acid takes away one equivalent of water from the Alcohol leaving Sulphuric Ether –

 

3  The proximate elements of food are Albumen, Fibrin, Chondrin, Ceasine [sic], Starch, Shugar  [sic, correction marks in pencil], and Gum, Gelitin [sic]

 

4  The branches of the Internal Maxillary artery are Middle miningeal [sic], superior and inferior dentata, orbital  superior laryngeal  inferior laryngeal tympanic, buxinator [sic, correction marks in pencil],

 

5  The rational signs of Pneumonia, are Fever with all its concomitants, pain in the lungs in the place where the inflamation [sic] is located the pain vairing [sic] with the extent of the disease, rust colored sputa  The physical Signs are dulness [sic] on percussion where the inflamation [sic] exists and also in auscultation the imperfect areation [sic] in the lung producing the sibilant rahl [sic] and other signs depending more particularly on the peculiar state of each individual case,

 

6  The Physiology of Respiration, this physiological action consists in taking into the lungs atmospheric air, and giving off Carbonic Acid.  The oxygen taken into the lungs at each inspiration changes the color of the blood from a light red into a bright red, it also in this action evokes heat, that is oxidation      to be carried on must have oxygen, carbonic acid gas is given of [sic] from the lungs so that during the act of respiration oxygen is taken into the blood and carbonic acid given off – oxygen being necessary to support life,

 

7  Hemorrhage may be arrested, 1st by Ligature compression, tortion [sic], stryptics [sic], astringents cold, and other measures are often employed.

 

8  What is hydrocele, this disease consists of an effusion of serum in the tunica vaginalis testis, this is often caused by injuries to the parts, it is not a painful affection.

The diagnosis is made by making the tumor tense and placing a lighted candle oposite [sic, correction marks in pencil] to where your eye is    the transparency can never be mistaken.  This should be done in a dark room,

 

9  Surgeons generally divide tumours, into malignant and nonmalignant Fibrous, Indolent, Cystic Serous, etc.

 


A list with links to all applicants in this survey of U.S. Navy Applicants for 1863

Example of a handwritten exam given by the Navy Examination Board

Medical Antiques Index

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques Index
 

Contact Dr. Arbittier or Dr. Echols

 

 

Civil War Medical Collections 

 

Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:

INDEX

Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Please request permission before commercial use or publication of any content or photos on this site and credit any use with:  "American Civil War Surgical Antiques"   All content and all original photography on this Web Site is copyrighted 1995 - 2015 and may not be used on any other web site or in commercial print without the expressed e-mail permission from Dr. Arbittier:  Contact   All rights reserved. 

 

Students doing reports or projects are welcome to use the content of this site without permission, but credits would be appreciated.

 

Please note: information on this site may not be normally referenced as this is an active and long-term educational research project.  Personal notes may not be properly cited for publication.  Various articles are digitally reproduced under the 'fair-use act' of the copyright laws and are intended for educational purposes only.  Many citations are from Google digital 'books' and can be traced backwards via a search of a unique string in the citation.

 

 Arbittier Museum of Medical History Tour:   1 | 2 | 3

 

Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016