American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

Surgical Set collection from 1860 to 1865 - Civilian and Military

Civil War:  Medicine, Surgeon Education & Medical Textbooks

 Dr. Michael Echols  &  Dr. Doug Arbittier

 

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Personal Notes on Collecting Medical Antiques

By Dr. Michael Echols

Miscellaneous information to help new medical collectors

How I started | Who collects | Mental Games | Dating items | Pricing | Condition | eBayGetting started | Surgical blades | Finish | Handles | Makers | Civil War

This page last updated: 09/26/16

There is no intent on my part to profess to "know the all the answers" about the topics covered on this web site.  These are my personal notes and I'm sharing what I know at this point with those who may be seeking their way into antique medical collecting.  

My one advantage is in knowing... I know nothing and nothing presented here is an absolute.  Any additional information or knowledge is welcome.

I have been collecting medical antiques after having received an early brass microscope as a present from a friend in the 1990's.   The first year, I asked around among the general antique dealers in my home town of Ft. Myers, Florida and found they knew nothing about collecting the medical area.  So, I figured if no one was collecting medical antiques there should be a lot of it around as there were so many retired doctors in this area of Florida.  I was right and quickly amassed a huge pile of "junk", any number of antique dealer "friends", but also some real finds that spurred me onto the next level.   Even though I really started out collecting brass microscopes, I quickly found they were way too close to the pathology department of my college days to keep me entertained... so that ended.

Next I tried the Antique Trader magazine and placed a display ad.  This was productive because it brought me in contact with two long-time closet collectors who would sell me their medical collections.   I got on a plane, looked at the collections and then shipped them back home.   Now I was really  hooked.   (This was before eBay started.)

During the next two years, in complete isolation (very dangerous!), I started looking for information to research the areas that interested me and ran into a stone wall.  There was no published "how to" information and what was published, was closely guarded by the temple priests.  Let me digress a moment and tell you I was no beginning collector.  I had collected high grade gold coins and top of the line Winchester rifles for twenty years.  I had also been collecting high grade antique fishing lures and was used to paying five figures.   Since I had been collecting at the top of the food chain, I thoroughly understood the ins and outs of collecting high-dollar material.  I knew knowledge was your 'only friend' in any antique area, so I knew what I had to do...get extensive knowledge.

Gradually I accumulated related books and early surgical instrument catalogs so things started to make sense.  With the publication of Edmonson's excellent book in 1997, American Surgical Instruments, I saw the light historically and once again became deeply interested.   But, things were rapidly changing.  Ebay had just begun and we all know that story.  With the Internet, all kinds of medical material becomes available and once again knowledge is your ONLY friend.  Emotional buying will quickly turn you into a pauper if you have expensive tastes.    

I had made the acquaintance of a couple other collectors, to whom I shall always be grateful, who wanted to know what I had in my collection.  So I put some photos of my "junk" on a Website I called 'medicalantiques.com'.  It was no big deal, just a couple weeks work and then I just sat back and waited to see what would happen.  The Website was quickly discovered by any number of journalists and TV programs.  The next thing I knew, I had a huge bill for Internet server time due to all the "hits" the national coverage produced.    Most Webmasters would kill for that problem.   I didn't really know what to do about it, so I just played with the site and it has evolved into what you now see on braceface.com.  As of July 1999, my good friend and fellow collector Doug Arbittier has joined me in being a part of the MedicalAntiques.com site as well as a contributor of information.  Eventually, I asked Doug to take over medicalantiques.com and I now maintain this braceface.com/medical site for my personal use and research on Civil War medicine and surgery as well isolating the Civil War collection.  Together, we are able to spread the "word" about our medical history and help other collectors. 

I later sold off parts of my original medical collection, which I no longer wished to collect and narrowed my interests to just surgical sets.  Due to having narrowed my interests, I created  "American Surgical Antiques".   During the past few years, I have further narrowed my interests to only Civil War era surgical instruments and renamed the site American Civil War Surgical Antiques.  I have a lot less 'stuff' too, which is good.

I've been fortunate to have purchased and added some unique items to the collection and have settled back to what I hope will be a long and interesting experience of collecting these unique pieces of our history and meeting others with similar interests.

Who collects this medical stuff anyway?

The serious medical collectors of early (pre-1900) medical and surgical instruments are generally a quiet, well heeled, and knowledgeable group who tend to collect in isolation. 

From what I have pieced together, most if not the majority of the long-term collectors are doctors of some ilk.  If you had joined the Medical Collectors group (no longer in operation as of 2005), you would have noted the majority of the collectors were MD's.  There are also collectors who are in associated fields like, pathology, history, educators, or medical manufacturing.  Some of the larger collections are in the hands of a few older physicians and museums who started way back when and amassed significant collections via auctions and dealer networks.  This is not to cast dispersions on any one who collects in other areas of medical antiques, but obviously my collecting interests are now focused on the pre-1865 era and that is the bias of this discussion for now.

There are several general directions a collection can take:

General medical collecting which covers it all

Historical pieces, to include heavily used instruments and sets

European sets, mixed with some American makers

American made sets, mixed with some European sets

Individual instruments without regard to 'sets'

Condition collecting which tends to lean toward more complete and unused sets

Field-use collecting which will encompass a larger scope of sets and instruments without worrying about the condition.

These directions can cross and mix producing many varied types of collections which reflect the taste and personality of the given collector.

Of course museums collect and display many of the finest pieces, but some individual collections would approximate the large institutional collections if not in size, then in quality.  Many of the museums acquired their collections from individual collectors who donated or bequeathed their lifetime collections.  Most serious collectors are very quiet about their obsession and quietly display their collections only in their homes.  (Based on my personal experience, this quietness about the obsession is due to the looks one gets when you tell others you collect old steak knives and bloody saws)  There are a few collectors who display their collections in their offices or hospital venues.  

Most of us have been confronted by other members of our respective professions who do not understand or care about these historical items and scoff at their value or show little interest.  It's their loss and our gain.  You may or may not be surprised to learn that many sets are sold by antique dealers to parents of individuals graduating from medical school.  These gifts place individual sets in the hands of non-collectors who may become collectors in the future.

Civil War collectors may be among the largest group of individuals who possess surgical sets.  Most Civil War collectors try to place at least one representative set in their collections.  My experience to date is that many of the sets purchased for this purpose are not really of Civil War vintage.  However, collecting Civil War artifacts is a growing interest and sure to bury many more sets than strictly medical collectors will acquire.

Another group of individuals who actively collect medical instruments are the Civil War re-enactors.  The re-enactors recreate surgical and medical dramas exhibiting procedures which took place during the Civil War .  They typically are not interested in being all that precise about which era or makers' instruments are used for the drama, but they do tend to buy a lot of instrument material which would normally be repatriated with the correct sets by preservationists like myself.  

Without doubt, the greatest concentration of surgical sets is most likely in the hands of family members of deceased doctors whose instruments have remained in the family.  Many isolated sets are owned by individuals who will never be known or seen again within our lifetime.  These individuals do not collect, but just 'own' a single set for any number of reasons.  These are the people who typically contact me through this Website to do research or offer their heirloom for sale...

Most of the younger collectors at this time are a diverse and scattered group who have little or no connection with one another.   There is no real "club" or organized group other than "The Medical Collectors Association, run by M. Donald Blaufox, M.D., Ph.D in New York has ceased to exist. 

If you wanted to meet with other collectors, the best route may be the two or three antique scientific instrument meets which occur per year in the Northeast.  There are only a handful of active antique medical dealers who sell mainly medical antiques, many of whom also deal scientific or Civil War antiques.  The patrons of those individuals are a closely held secret as there is much competition for the really choice sets which rarely come to market.  When I talk about "patrons", we're talking the $3,000 and up for a single item buyers.  I caution you to be very, very cautious about working with some of these individuals.

In general, the community of collectors of medical antiques tend to be a highly educated group with their interests concentrated in the area of their specialty if they are in the medical field.  It is not unusual to find a specialist, like an ob/gyn, collecting the tools of the trade.  Some of us are more eclectic and collect widely out of curiosity or the love of well-made and historical pieces.

EBay:

With the advent of eBay, medical collecting changed radically.  The antique dealer network appeared to be in total disarray for the first couple of years due to the field pickers or general antique dealers taking their "finds" directly to the Internet to sell and by-passing the more specialized medical antique dealers. 

The medical dealers are complaining loudly about this fact, but it is in fact a blessing for the collectors.   In the past, the antique medical dealers bought pieces in Europe or from places like the Brimfield Antiques outdoor shows and then sold them to isolated  collectors.  One long-term collector remarked upon finding eBay how he placed more material in his collection in one week on eBay than he bought in antique shops in a year.  The eBay route provides more material at a lower cost because of the supply being available and it eliminates travel and time costs.

Let me say that the comfort of buying an "authentic" piece from a reputable collector or dealer will more than off-set the discomfort one feels from the supposedly sweet deal on eBay that turns out to be a fake.  EBay does have its share of fakes and misrepresentations.   When paying above the $1,000 mark, a knowledgeable collector who will help authenticate a piece is well worth the effort. 

What has happened in all areas of antiques with the advent of the Internet auction and eBay in particular, is collectors have been taught what they had been told by dealers was rare and priceless was in fact not rare at all and prices fell....!  It has happened due to the vast amount of information now available on-line. 

Knowledge is power and that power has shifted from the dealers to the buyers.

Getting started with medical collecting:

So you want to start collecting medical antiques?  First, and foremost, arm yourself with every book you can buy.   It's going to cost you several hundred dollars, but will help direct your search and ultimately save you thousands in mistakes.  See the books section of this Website for direction to sources for the books I use, but note that my interests have narrowed and I do not list all collecting books.

Obtaining that first buy can be daunting, so finding someone to hold your hand and mentor you can be helpful.  Connecting with other collectors is your best bet.

Bannerman's 1904 catalog of Army Medical Dept. surplus

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c. 1860-70's Stethoscopes

Mental games in medical collecting:

When confronted with making a high-end buy, I have a number of mental tests which I run to determine if I really want to make the buy or not. They are:

When was the last time I saw one of these and what is the likelihood I'll see another one? (Dangerous test if you are a beginner and think everything is rare!) After you collect for a while and build up contacts among other collectors, the feeling that you will see another piece again is more positive. The longer you collect, the more you understand what is really rare and what is not. There are lots of items out there still in the hands of non-collectors.

If I pass on this, can I find another one in the same condition? (Mental masturbation at best.)

Is it really something I will enjoy in my collection? (Do you get warm and fuzzy feelings?) With the passage of time, we all tire of parts of our collections. Today's passion is tomorrow's trader. It happens.

Do I want to go off in another collecting direction, or stay on the path I have decided upon? (One tends to collect that which is available.  Do what works for you. Adapt.)

Am I going to get mad at myself if I let this pass? (Who among us has not kicked him or herself for passing on a piece because "it cost too much", only to later wallow in regret?) There will be another, but the test is when and how much will it cost next time around.

Is the price out of line with my experience or that of other collectors of a like mind? (One doesn't want to pay too much and be seen as "stupid" by ones' peers? On the other hand, stupid today maybe smart tomorrow!) Always pay a premium for quality. You never go wrong with the best.  (I will keep repeating this mantra.)

How many survived? Is it really rare? (Experience is the only teacher. When you first begin collecting, everything is rare because you don't know how many are available.)

Is this a fad buy? Will this "hot area" pass and should I just wait until the demand dies down? (One or two competing collectors can drive the prices on a limited supply and when they drink their fill, the price will drop like a rock. . A few competing collectors can drive the price through the roof but once they finish their collections, prices settled back down as calmer collectors re-enter the market.)

Is the item worth a premium to obtain at this time? (If it is a rare and a once in a life time opportunity to fill a hole in the collection...just do it!  That post-purchase depression gradually fades after a while....I hope.)

How many people collect this item? (If you and two other guys are the only ones collecting a given item, don't overpay for the right to own it.) If you are the only person collecting a given item, then you have to think twice about being held up for a high price. Where else are they going to sell it?

Is this item so unique that no one else would want it but me? (A collectible is not a good investment unless other people want it.) Yes, I realize that the pure of heart collector doesn't really care, but at the levels which items go for these days, you have to weigh the cost vs. return on investment equation.

And finally, how am I going to get out of this item if and when I want to move it to another collector or dealer? (Is it a good investment? Is there a market for the item?) Quality will always move. As long as you have the best available, you won't have to apologize when it comes time to sell.

Dating Surgical and Medical Items:

Some parameters for determining the approximate age of cased medical antiques: 

If you accept the assumption that Lister's work on germ theory changed the habits of the surgical community about 1880, then porous materials use on surgical instruments were most likely eliminated post 1880.  Instruments with bone, horn, composite, ebony, or ivory handles will generally be prior to 1880, but they continued to be produced in Europe even after the advent of "sterile" technique.  Some non-metallic handled instruments can be found being produced in the the turn of the century.   Metal handled saws should be assumed to be post 1880 and more likely closer to 1900 in the USA.

A note from a German collector, Detlef Frobenius: "In Germany, instruments with ebony, horn or tortoise handles were still listed till 1920.  In old catalogs you can find scalpels, bistouries and saws with a non-metal handle until 1920, but we don't know if they were still sold.   So with European instruments, a non-metal grip may not always a sure hint the instrument was manufactured pre-1880. Marks of the instrument makers on the piece were very common after 1850, instruments before that period only very, very occasionally have a mark (stamp) of the manufacturer."

The gradual removal of porous material like hard rubber, ebony, bone, or ivory handles would have followed the acceptance of germ theory as the cause of infection and eliminated because they could not be effectively sterilized.  Civil War items were not sterilized, but merely "wiped clean".  When someone offers you an item with a metal handle and claims it to be "Civil War", just draw them in to the discussion of Lister's germ theory and the time frame when that occurred.  Watch for the seller's progressively rapid darting of the eyes as you move into that logic.

The manufactures of instruments moved to follow the "germ free" trend and changed the materials used to construct handles.  As this was before the plating of steel, sterilization rapidly ruined the unplated steel and this would account for the poor condition of many unplated steel or iron blades or instruments.  Plating can be found on earlier instruments, but it was not common and would have been precious metals like silver and gold.  Nickel plating first occurred approximately during the 1860-1870's in the Americas and in the 1840's in France.    The earlier more ornate instruments had ivory or carved handles.  

A typical post 1890's all metal plated surgical set

  • Typically, the wood used on early surgical cases was either rose wood, fruitwood, or mahogany prior to the 20th century.  Usually cases from the 1800's were in more ornate cases like mahogany and had brass inlaid on the corners or tops and the interiors were lined with velvet, chamois, silk, or other plush material.   Later, post 1880  cases used oak, pine, and walnut which were not lined.  About 1890, some US companies used the fake leatherette finish on wood boxes and this kind of container is typical of the post 1900 era.  Many UK and French manufactures started using the leatherette finish much earlier.

  • In general, here is a methodology for researching instrument manufacture dates:

  • Examine the artifact for manufacturer's marks
    For later material, patent date/patent number
    Manufacturer/distributor name or trademark
    Country of production
    Material of composition (sometimes revealed through plating)
    Unique use of instrument
    Identify item in trade catalog via library or Google search
    Establish eponymic name
    Earliest/latest appearance of item in print
    Research historical context
    Birth/death of developer/inventor
    Use in medical procedures
    Appearance/non-appearance of aseptic joints, etc.

Blade anatomy to determine age:

The blade of the longer American made amputation knives (Liston's) can be curved (earlier) or straight (later).   Revolutionary War era sets would have long blade amputation knives which are noticeably curved downward.  By the time of the Civil War, the blades were pretty much straight across the top or back of the long blade and remained so through the end of the century. 

Also see the extensive photo article on surgical blades relative to dating them.

Blade shapes on amputation knives are a good indication as to era.  In general, the earlier blades are more curved downward.  The earlier handles are heavier that the later handles.   Later, post 1860 blades, were straighter.  As can be seen in the photo below, the upper knife (1840) is more curved than the middle blade (1850) and the lower blade (1870) is straight.  Also, note the blunt point on the earlier blades as opposed to the later more traditional knife blade design.

Older styles c. 1840 - 1850's two at the top.  Later c. 1860's - 1870's single at the bottom

Replacement parts:

A word about replacement parts in cased sets: since the early instruments were handcrafted, the slots in the velvet lined tray or wood case in which the individual instruments are seated are custom made for that specific instrument.  This means a given instrument will only fit in that one slot.  Replacements will rarely fit exactly into the slot of a case and this is one of the tell-tale signs of a set having been 'monkeyed-with'.   If you know enough about the variations of different makers, you can match correct era and styles of instruments to fill partial sets, but 90% of the time, the instruments will not match or fit in a given set case.

If you buy an 1800's set with the hope of replacing a missing part, get ready for a long wait.  It isn't likely to happen unless it was someone like Tiemann or the large commercial suppliers during the Civil War who had a production line and standardized certain instruments.  Smaller makers made their instruments one at a time and the odds of finding a missing part are slim and none.

Identification of various instruments found in amputation sets is listed here.

Replaced parts in sets is the greatest problem in buying surgical sets.  Some well-known dealers are notorious for placing incorrect parts in sets they sell. 

Pricing and Collectors:

Everyone wants to know what their medical antiques are worth.    Well, that's a difficult question and I just don't know.  If the condition is new in the box, the interest level increases and the value goes up.  Many times, price is relative to demand and the demand varies with the exposure of the item to collectors.  Typically antique dealers pay very little for medical items because there is great risk they will be stuck with the item for long periods of time.  There is also  the great risk of a set or item not being correct, or containing inconsistent substitutions.  

The number one problem with collecting this type of antique material is first identification, and then figuring out if it's all there.  Partial kits or instruments are not very valuable.  Unlike art, which you can look up in a text, medical antiques are fairly undocumented other than in auction catalogs, texts, or the precious few published museum documents available.  Only a few true experts exist.  Via this Website, I am trying to share as much knowledge as possible with other collectors, pricing, and availability of various instruments. 

For additional information see: evaluating unknown sets; valuation of a surgical set; and pricing article on this site.

Historically, really nice medical items have changed hands within the professional community at what  could only be described as relatively modest prices.  When major pieces have been sold at the auctions houses in New York or London, the prices are not all that great due to a limited number of collectors or museums willing to pay top dollar.   Unlike art  collectors, medical collectors tend to be a quiet group and not display their collections.  They are typically collectors of the history of the profession, rather than investor/collectors.    So little is known about many medical items found in the back alleys of antique shops that one is at great risk if one pays more than a few hundred dollars.    In general, the items sold on eBay auctions are quiet often of questionable authenticity as reflected in the lower prices realized.  On the other hand, sometimes prices paid at on-line auctions will be disproportionately high.  It all depends on who is bidding.

So, where do you go to find comparable prices for sets or individual instruments?  Search the auction catalogs of Christies, Sotheby's, eBay, and the older auction houses in the Northeast.  Study antique magazines which cater to scientific and medical sales.  Contact museums and see if they will divulge prices paid for their collections.  (Doubtful!)  Attend large antique fairs or shows and see what is placed for sale and then try to figure out what was actually paid.  As you can see, it isn't easy.  It really boils down to "It's worth what someone is willing to pay and nothing more." 

If you spend a huge amount of time on eBay, you can get an idea of relative prices collectors or dealer/buyers are willing to pay for a given item at a given time.  If you know the dealers who bid on eBay, you can get a pretty good idea what the "wholesale" price is to them since they generally have a good idea what a given piece will bring on the collector market.   In some cases, they will pay top dollar because they know some isolated busy doctor who will pay whatever they say and not question the price. 

Not everyone has time to dig and watch the collectible market and that is why they employ the use of a "good reputable" dealer.  Again, just ask and I'll try to point you in the right direction based on my or friends experience.

Condition:

In my collecting world, condition is everything.  I have learned over the years that collecting rarity is nice and interesting, but condition is where the real long-term value lies.  Rusty old instruments with pitting and broken parts may be good teaching devices, but they are not worth buying unless there is some over-riding historical or emotional reason.  My personal experience is to buy the best you can afford and trade up at the earliest opportunity.

Buying partial sets with major missing pieces is a gamble at best.  Since so much of the medical equipment made prior to 1900 was all custom made, the likelihood of finding an exact replacement for a missing piece of a set is almost non-existent.  It is hard to find a medical kit with all the original pieces and without substitutions.  One or two minor pieces being missing is no big deal. 

Finish:

Chromed vs. nickel plating vs. unplated instruments: if it's chrome plated, it's too late for my collecting tastes...chrome plate makes it post 1900.  Unplated metal will put the instrument in an earlier time frame (Pre-1870's), The French maker Charriere was plating instruments as early as the 1840's, but it was limited to gold, and silver for the most part on instruments or parts that would come long-term contact with the body, e.g. catheters.  Nickel plating of American instruments began in the 1860's.   Of course unplated metal rusted so the finish won't be as nice as the later plated pieces. Stainless would date to post 1920.  If it is flaking chrome plating, figure it's post-1877.

Plating: 

Gold, silver, platinum electroplating introduced in 1839/40.

In 1842: Charriere plates surgical instruments; Tiemann follows suit in 1843.

In mid 1860s: nickel-plating introduced, but not yet widespread until early 1870's, when commerical production basis begins.  By 1876 nickelplating is fairly universal in surgical instruments.

Chromium-plating starts in 1908-08

Additional information: http://www.case.edu/affil/MeMA/cataloging.pdf

Handles: 

The more desirable items will have ivory or bone handles which tend to be earlier.  Ivory and dense wood handles are normally found on pre-1860 items, but the ebony and gutta percha  or horn material extended in some areas into the 1880's or in later in some countries.   Gutta Percha or a hard black rubber-like material handles are much later (post 1840's) and usually are found down into the later 1880's when sterilization began and porous material went out of fashion.  Again, an all metal handle which is plated usually indicates post 1880 and more than likely post 1900. 

A word about gutta percha and animal horn handles and how they are made on a production line.  Regarding animal horn: it was pressed into a mold under steam heat and high pressure to get the detail of the mold.  Second, gutta percha was not poured, but rather placed in a mold as a "puck" of the proper size and also heated under steam heat and pressure.   (Courtesy of Mike Semegran)

Smaller pocket surgical knives called  bistouries, usually had ebonized wood or tortoise shell handles.  These small light weight folding knives usually are found in sets with folding leather pouches or cases, but may be found individually too.

Makers:

Not all makers of amputation or surgical sets were great craftsmen.   I've seen sets that were an embarrassment due to the poor workmanship.  These limited-use utility type sets tend to be from smaller American or English manufactures.     On the other hand, most of the early European and English derived items, as well as the majority of American-made pre- and  post- Civil War era pieces are works of art.  The French were especially innovative in the ob/gyn arena and much earlier than the English.  These, of course, are generalizations and quality could vary according to the maker.  See the extended list of American Makers.

Medical instrument dealers or manufactures who published catalogs like George Tiemann and Co. or J. A. Gemrig,  tend to be easily collectible because you can document your item.  Instrument catalogs, when you can find them, make identification an easier task.

Of note: after about 1889, the Germans pretty much took over the surgical instrument trade in the United States due to their superior mass production abilities and therefore reduced prices.  This is another reason I now limit my collection to Pre-1865.

Things to look for to date an instrument or item:

Manufacture's date or when the manufacturer existed and their address

Patent date or patent number (after 1880.)

Manufacture or distributor name or trademark (trademarks are later)

Country of production

Material of blade composition, e.g. "stainless", "chromed", or "rustless" all of which are post-1877

Material of handle composition, e.g. ebony, bone, ivory, horn, metal (Metal is post-1870)

Unique use of the item.  

Item in a trade catalog

Presence of aseptic joints or non-presence (post-1870's)

Historical context (what was it used for and when?)

Birth and death of the developer or inventor

And, last but most important, see Edmonson's book on American Instrument Makers

 

Medical Antiques Index

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques Index
 

Contact Dr. Arbittier or Dr. Echols

 

 

Civil War Medical Collections 

 

Direct links to all medical & Civil War collections on this site                         

American Surgical Sets:

Pre-Civil War:  1 | 2  -   Post-Civil War:  3  -  Civil War 1861-1865:  4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   INDEX

Medical Text-Books:

1 | 1a | 2 | 2a | 3 | 3a | 4 | 4a | 5 | 5a | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 9a | 10 | 11 | 12    INDEX

Surgeon General's Office Library printed catalogues: 1840 | 1864 | 1865
Medical Lecture Cards: 1 | 2 | 34 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21    INDEX

Medical Faculty and Authors:

INDEX

Navy Surgeon Exams:

1863 Navy Surgeon Applicant Exams with Biographies   INDEX ONE | INDEX TWO

Surgeon CDVs, Images:

Army: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8    INDEX

Navy: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8   

Hosp Dep't Bottles, Tins, 

U.S. Army Pannier:

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

American Civil War Medicine & Surgical Antiques

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 Arbittier Museum of Medical History Tour:   1 | 2 | 3

 

Last update: Monday, December 12, 2016